CO2 Well Construction: Lessons learned from United States Department of Energy sponsored projects
By: Andrew Duguid, Jim Kirksey, David Riestenberg, George Koperna, Caitlin Holley, Matteo Loizzo, Randy Locke (October 21, 2018)
This study, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, delves into the intricacies of constructing carbon dioxide (CO2) injection wells as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects. Emphasizing the importance of long-term CO2 storage without external migration, the article underscores the necessity for these injection wells to adhere to a more stringent construction standard than typical oil and gas wells. Drawing from the lessons and data amassed from numerous wells built over the past decade—particularly from the "Project ECO2S" in Kemper County, Mississippi, the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project, and the Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project—the article paints a comprehensive picture of well construction methodologies.
The research contrasts various construction materials and methods. It offers an analysis of the diverse cements used, ranging from the traditional Portland cement to advanced CO2-resistant variants. However, the results highlight certain challenges, including the occurrence of microannuli, cement contamination, and breakdowns in the well's formation. The article methodically discusses the operational nuances of cementing processes to understand the genesis of these issues. By doing so, it stresses the pivotal role of a successful cement job at every stage of well construction. The findings emphasize the necessity for impeccable cement work, from initial laboratory evaluations to the final stages of well completion.